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Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis

Kawasaki Disease is a type of juvenile arthritis. Kawasaki disease results in inflamatory-type symptoms followed by heart complication. Other symptoms include aunmistakable rashes, a swelling or redness around the hands or feet, took after a couple of weeks after by peeling the skin around the fingers and toes. Continue reading the article to have an in-depth look into the disease.

What is Kawasaki disease?
What causes Kawasaki disease?
What are the common signs and symptoms?
How can the doctor diagnose Kawasaki disease?
What are the treatments of Kawasaki disease?
What should expect when the child got home from the hospital?
Can the child be re-infected with Kawasaki disease?
Can Kawasaki disease be prevented?

What is Kawasaki disease?

Kawasaki disease is a term referred to the condition in which the blood vessels are affected and is also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Kawasaki disease almost always affects children; most patients are under 5 years old, and the average age is about 2.The symptoms of kawasaki will be severe at first stage but then after appropriate treatment, the child will return to normal.

Once in a while, the illness influences the coronary arteries that provide oxygenated blood for the heart. If Kawasaki disease affects the coronary arteries, it can prompt extreme heart issues including myocarditis (aggravation of the heart muscle), dysrhythmia (strange heart musicality), and aneurysm (debilitating and swelling of the supply route divider).

Kawasaki disease can likewise influence the lymph nodes, skin, and the mucous layers found inside the nose, throat, and mouth.

Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis - 1

Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 1

The disease was depicted by and named after Japanese pediatrician Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967. It is likewise called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome or Kawasaki syndrome.

What causes Kawasaki disease?

Untill now, the exact cause of Kawasaki disease has not been found out yet. Most of specialists agree on the infectious factors (like virus or bacteria). Genetics may also play a role in the causing of this disease as Japanese or ones carrying themselves “Japanese blood” have higher chance of Kawasaki among all groups. And there is no evidence show the disease is contagious.


The indications of Kawasaki disease are like those of a disease, so microscopic organisms or an infection might be capable. Be that as it may, so far a bacterial or viral cause hasn’t been recognized.

As Kawasaki disease isn’t contagious, it can’t be gone starting with one individual then onto the next. This makes it impossible that it’s brought about by an infection alone.

Kawasaki disease doesn’t for the most part influence babies under six months old, albeit some of the time extremely youthful youngsters can build up the condition.

This recommends infants are ensured by antibodies went on to them by their mom, either before birth or amid breastfeeding. Antibodies are proteins that decimate ailment conveying life forms.

As couple of more established youngsters and grown-ups are influenced by Kawasaki disease, they might be insusceptible to whatever causes it. While numerous individuals are presented to Kawasaki disease, just a couple go ahead to build up the manifestations.


The children who have Kawasaki disease might be hereditarily inclined to it. This implies the genes they acquire from their parents may make them more prone to get the condition.

One hypothesis is that as opposed to there being a solitary quality in charge of Kawasaki disease, it might be the aftereffect of numerous qualities that each somewhat expand the odds of a tyke building up the condition.

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Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 2

Kawasaki disease is more regular in youngsters from upper east Asia, particularly Japan and Korea. This likewise recommends there might be a hereditary cause.

What are the common signs and symptoms?

Kawasaki disease happens in three stages over a six-week period.

Stage 1: intense (weeks 1-2)

In this stage, your child may have to suffer from severe symptoms.


The first and most regular effect of Kawasaki disease is typically a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above.

The fever can go ahead rapidly and doesn’t react to anti-infection agents or prescriptions regularly used to lessen a fever, for example, ibuprofen or paracetamol. In the event that your youngster has a fever, they might be exceptionally peevish.

Your child’s fever will generally keep going for no less than five days. In any case, it can keep going for around 11 days without the best possible treatment. In some uncommon cases, the fever can keep going for whatever length of time that three to four weeks.

The fever may travel every which way, and your kid’s body temperature could achieve a high of 40C (104F).

Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis - 3

Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 3


Your kid may have a messy, red rash on their skin. It as a rule begins in the genital range before spreading to the middle, arms, legs and face.

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Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 4

Hands and feet

The skin on your child’s fingers or toes may get to be red or hard, and their hands and feet may swell up.

Your child may feel their hands and feet are delicate and difficult to touch or put weight on, so they might be hesitant to walk or slither while these side effects hold on.

Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis - 5

Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 5

Conjunctival injection

Conjunctival injection is the place the whites of the eyes turn red and swollen. Both eyes are normally influenced, however the condition isn’t excruciating.

Not at all like conjunctivitis, where the slight layer of cells that cover the white part of the eye (conjunctiva) gets to be aggravated, liquid doesn’t spill from the eyes in conjunctival infusion.

Lips, mouth, throat and tongue

Your kid’s lips might be red, dry or split. They may likewise swell up and peel or drain.

Within your tyke’s mouth and throat may likewise be excited. Their tongue might be red, swollen and secured in little irregularities, otherwise called “strawberry tongue”.

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Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 6

Swollen lymph organs

On the off chance that you delicately feel your youngster’s neck, you might have the capacity to feel swollen knots on one or both sides. The irregularities could be swollen lymph organs.

Lymph organs are a piece of the safe framework, the body’s guard against disease. They may swell to more than 1.5cm wide, feel firm and be marginally difficult.

Stage 2: sub-intense (weeks 2-4)

Amid the sub-intense stage, your kid’s indications will turn out to be less serious yet may last more. The fever ought to die down, yet your youngster may in any case be bad tempered and in impressive torment.

The symtoms amid the second stage of Kawasaki disease include:

  • peeling skin on the fingers and toes
  • stomachache
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • urine that contains pus
  • lethargic
  • cerebral pain
  • joint pain and swollen joints
  • yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes (jaundice)

Stage 3: recovering (weeks 4-6)

Your child will start to recoup during the third period of Kawasaki syndrome, which is known as the recovering stage.

Your child’s condition should begin to improve and all symptoms gradually be gone. Be that as it may, your child may even now feel tired and lose appetite.

How can the doctor diagnose Kawasaki disease?

The doctor will first conduct thorough physical examination to observe the signs and symtoms your child having, then rule ot all other possibilities which are likely also the culprits causing those symptoms.

Blood tests will be carried out to detect other illnesses, white blood cell count, anemia, inflammation, which are signals of Kawasaki disease.

Also, the doctor may ask your child to have chest X-ray in order to look for signs of heart failure and inflammation.

An electrocardiogram, or ECG, records the electrical movement of the heart. Inconsistencies in the ECG may demonstrate that the heart has been influenced by Kawasaki.

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Kawasaki Disease: A Type of Juvenile Arthritis – 7

What are the treatments of Kawasaki disease?

Gamma Globulin (a class of globulins, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis) will be injected into the patient’s vein in high amount. This is a choice of treatment for Kawasaki patient. Gamma globulin will help reduce inflammation and prevent further damage of coronary artery if it is used in the first 10 days of getting the disease. High dosage of Aspirin can also be utilized with Gamma globulin in pernicious phase of the disease until the fever subsides.

Complications rarely appear during treatment. Viruses like HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted through gamma globulin injection. Hepatitis C virus was once found transmitted through gamma globulin injection into vein, but those products had been withdrawn from the circulation. Sometimes, cold and fever can occur during injection. This is treated by stopping the process and use antihistamine before reinjection. Using high dosage of aspirin can result in stomachache, gastric bleeding and tinnitus. Treatment including aspirin should be suspended if there is any sign above. Reye syndrome is a rare complication of aspirin treatment which apear when the child contacts with chicken pox patients or people having a flu when using high-dose aspirin. Low-dose aspirin using does not bring high chance of getting Reye syndrome.

If tests show the existence of aneurism or any abnormal signs of heart and vessels, internal medicine and surgery are needed. Your doctor may introduce you a paediatrician (doctor who look at specific health issues, diseases and disorders related to stages of growth and development) will help you following your child’s circulation system for years after your child recovers from Kawasaki disease.

What should expect when the child got home from the hospital?

After leave the hospital for home, you may notice that your child continues to be tired and lose appetite in 1 to 2 weeks. However, unless the doctor says the opppsite specifically, you should not try to limit the child’s activities or diet.

However, you should immediately call the doctor when having detected these signs:

Signs of contamination of Aspirin tablets

  • Shortness of breath and agriculture caused by high -dose aspirinStomachache (may/may not vomit blood)
  • Recurrence of fever or other symptoms of Kawasaki Disease (for example, rash, red eyes – see Signs and Symptoms section above)


The routine immunization against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) should be delayed for 12 months, after treatment with gamma globulin.

Letting your child approach people having cold or chicken pox when the child is using high dosage of aspirin will increase his/her chance of developing Reye syndrome.

Big joints (such as elbow joint, knee joint) being soft or swell, peeling skin on the palms or the hands or the soles of the feet are normal symptoms in recovering process. Still, those symptoms have to disappear in 3 week time.

Can the child be re-infected with Kawasaki disease?

Very rare.

Kawasiaki disease can last for months or even years in the first time the patient got infected. In Japan, regarding to reports, the recurrence of Kawasaki disease accounted for only 4.3% of all cases. So if you see any signs or symptoms that have been mentioned in this article, call your doctor immediately.

Can Kawasaki disease be prevented?

Unfortunately, at the present time, scientists have not found ways to prevent Kawasaki disease beforehand. However, there are programs like Research Kawasaki Disease program in San Diego, in which doctors as well as scientists all over the United State of America are working together and cooperating with Japanese scientists to carry out research and have better understanding of this strange disease.

We have just provided you an overview information about Kawaski disease. These are all you need to understand clearly about the disease to have the right treatment as well as response if your child develops Kawasaki. Hope you find this article helpful.